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Node JS ARCHITECTURE

Node JS is a JavaScript-based, free, open-source, go-platform runtime environment. It is intended specifically for a mobile application’s client-side or server-side functionality. It is a full-stack enhancement environment where tasks are divided into independent nodes. In this article, we will be focusing on the Node JS architecture. IT firms go for Node JS because it is scalable due to its asynchronous and non-blocking architecture. As a result, the product can handle millions of requests concurrently. NASA, Trello, PayPal, Uber, Twitter, etc., have also achieved similar benefits using Node JS architecture. 

What is Node JS?

An open-source, cross-platform, runtime environment known as Node JS can be used to build server-side and networking applications. Applications developed on Node JS can run on Linux, OS X, and Microsoft Windows using the Node JS runtime.

Additionally, Node JS includes a vast library of JavaScript modules, which makes building web apps considerably simpler. It improves the functionality of Node JS. Programming languages can be easily integrated with APIs (Application Programming Interface), other languages, and a wide range of third-party libraries due to Node JS. It can handle both server-side scripting and client-side programming and is only used with JavaScript for web app development.

Features of Node JS are:

1) Single-Threaded: A single-threaded paradigm with event looping is used by Node JS. In contrast to typical servers, which produce a limited number of threads to handle requests, the event mechanism enables the server to respond in a non-blocking manner and increases the server’s scalability. Node JS employs a single-threaded program, and in comparison, to conventional servers like Apache HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) Server, that program can handle a far higher volume of requests. 

2) No Buffering: Buffering is working with stream able data. In Node JS web applications, there is no buffering of data as Node JS has buffer classes and libraries like stream buffers for facilitating stream data access. The actual data is put in a buffer class until the call back pulls the actual data out of the stream.

3) Uses Javascript: The Node JS library uses JavaScript, another crucial feature from the engineer’s point of view. The majority of developers are already comfortable using JavaScript. As a result, working with Node JS will be much simpler for a developer familiar with JavaScript.

4) Asynchronous and Event-driven: All of the asynchronous (non-blocking) APIs (Application Programming Interface) in the Node JS library. Node JS servers never have to wait for data to come from an API. The server goes on to the next API after gaining access to one. It uses a notification system known as Events to receive and monitor responses to earlier API requests.

5) It is scalable: Scalability, one of the most important issues in software development, is addressed by Node JS. Most businesses now require scalable software. Node JS is also effective at managing multiple concurrent queries. It has a cluster module that controls load balancing across all active CPU cores. The most attractive feature of Node JS is its ability to divide applications horizontally. It accomplishes this by employing child processes. As a result, the firms can adapt to the customization needs of their customers by offering various app versions to various target audiences.

What is Node JS Architecture?

i. We will gain a deeper understanding of the benefits of the Node JS single-threaded event loop model, including how to handle concurrent requests without starting multiple threads and how to use fewer threads to make use of fewer resources. The mechanics of Node JS are a major factor in its developer appeal. Node JS does not use multi-threading, unlike most other runtime environments.

ii. When using multiple threads, a thread is chosen each time a request is made until all available threads have been used. The server cannot proceed while a thread is occupied; it must wait until a free thread is created. Everything from lead conversion to customer experience can suffer from slow and inefficient applications.

iii. However, the Node JS programming language uses the single-threaded processing approach. Single-thread designs handle input/output operations by employing event loops to handle blocking operations in a non-blocking way. In contrast, multi-thread architectures handle each request as a separate thread.

Parts of Single-Threaded Node JS Architecture 

a. Requests: Depending on the tasks that a user wants to complete in a web application, incoming requests can be blocked (complicated) or non-blocking (simple).

b. Node JS Server: A server-side platform called Node JS server accepts user requests, processes those requests, and then returns results to the corresponding users.

c. Event Queue: Incoming client requests are stored by the event queue and sent one at a time into the Event Loop.

d. Thread pool: All the threads available for doing certain tasks necessary to satisfy client requests are collected in a thread pool.

e. Event loop: Event Loop continuously accepts requests, handles them, and then sends back the appropriate responses to customers.

f. External Resources: External resources are needed to handle client requests that are being blocked. These resources may be used for processing, data storage, or other purposes.

Workflow of Single-Threaded Node JS Architecture

The Node JS architecture workflow is as follows. There are two types of requests which are incoming and outgoing. There are two types of incoming requests: simple, which is non-blocking, and complex, which is blocking.

It relies on the task that web application or software users are expected to do, which are as follows:

  1. Queries are used to find specific data within databases. Delete queries and sending requests to delete specific pieces of data are two instances of eliminating data.
  2. We can either perform an updating query on a specific table row to update a specific database record or send a request to modify or update a specific piece of data.
  3. Node JS collects the client requests as they come in and adds them to its Event Queue.
  4. The event loop then examines each incoming request individually to decide whether or not it requires outside assistance. If so, these requests are then delegated to outside resources; if not, the process moves on to the next step.
  5. Event Loop uses I/O polling to handle non-blocking (simple) requests and returns the appropriate clients as a response.
  6. Each complex request is granted a single thread from the thread pool after the phases mentioned above. This thread allocates external resources, like file systems, databases, etc., to handle specific blocking requests.
  7. As soon as the task is finished, the response is sent back to the event loop, which then transmits it to the client, making it a single-threaded event loop model.

How do parts of the Single-Threaded Node JS Architecture function?

Node JS is a JavaScript runtime built on the Chrome V8 JavaScript engine. This demonstrates that it is based on JavaScript’s single-threaded architecture. As a result, each client request is handled by a single main thread.

The event loop is the fundamental component that enables Node JS to carry out I/O operations in a non-blocking way. It keeps an eye on asynchronous tasks and pushes them back to the execution queue once they are finished. It operates.

The core of the Node JS processing paradigm is the Event Loop. Therefore, understanding the Node JS Internals is quite simple if we have them under control.

When it comes across an asynchronous task, it can set it aside and keep working on other tasks until the asynchronous task is complete. On the other hand, if We engage in prolonged, CPU-intensive tasks, we will spend too much time on one task, delaying others. To properly utilize the event loop’s switching mechanism, the basic idea is to avoid stopping it for expensive tasks.

Why is Single-Threaded Node JS Architecture in demand?

  1. It provides certain extraordinary advantages that other frameworks do not. Node.js offers scalability, performance, and a simple and rapid development process. Additionally, since its release, the popularity of Node JS has been continuously rising, and it appears that this trend will continue for some time.
  2. Using Event Queue and Thread Pool, the Node.js server can effectively handle many requests.
  3. As Event Loop handles each request individually, there is no need to create additional threads; one thread will work fine.
  4. Since each request is handled separately, serving requests to a Node.js server uses less memory and server resources.

Conclusion

Node JS has become highly popular for creating web-based and mobile applications. Node JS framework brings quality and detailed features in an application to the table, which is a boon for an application developer as it brings an endless number of perks. It will bring technology enhancement. It works well for creating apps with plenty of client-side renderings and frequent data transfers between clients and servers. Our aim should be to produce clean and reusable code to avoid challenges in Node JS.  

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